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Future Steel Buildings, Business, Page 3

Future Steel Buildings

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1 | Basics of Steel
Steel is an alloy that consists of iron and carbon. Carbon content
added to steel depends on the grade of steel and typically ranges
from 0.2 to 2.1 %. Carbon is mostly used for alloying with iron but
a number of other alloying elements have also been used such as
manganese, chromium, vanadium and tungsten.

Carbon and other elements function as hardening agents
preventing deformations of iron atom crystal lattice.

The invention of Bessemer process in the mid 19th century
improved steel production methods. Further modifications were
made in the process to make it cost effective and produce steel of
better quality.

Modern processes make steel with different combinations of
metal alloys to produce steel with different properties for various

 Carbon steel is composed of mainly carbon and iron. It makes up
90 % of steel production.

 High Strength low alloy steel (HSLA) has small additions of other
elements such as manganese to increase steel strength.

 Low Alloy steel uses alloys of manganese, chromium, nickel or
molybdenum to improve the hardness of thick sections.

 Stainless Steel uses 11 % chromium usually combined with nickel
to resist rust formation (corrosion).